Cumbria Branch Survey Involvement

The Wider Countryside Butterfly Survey (July and August, with May and June optional)

Morecambe Bay Anania funebris Search (April to June)

Mountain Ringlet Survey 2017 (June and July)

Netted Carpet Moth - Larval Count (September 2019)

The Wider Countryside Butterfly Survey (July and August, with May and June optional) - can you help in 2018?

Many "common" butterfly species are undergoing serious declines and are in need of greater attention. The Wider Countryside Butterfly Survey (WCBS) organised by Butterfly Conservation, the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) and the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO) is a national survey of common and widespread butterfly species. Now in its tenth year, it is the first UK-wide survey of butterfly abundance using a random sampling framework. The WCBS enables the changing abundance of these species in the general countryside to be more effectively monitored. The survey also helps to measure the future impacts of climate change on butterflies and to assess whether environmental grants to farmers and woodland managers are helping to restore butterfly populations across the landscape. WCBS covers the majority of habitat types in the UK, including urban and upland sites; this is in contrast with the long-established transect monitoring system, which tends to focus on nature reserves and sites which are generally better for butterflies. Using new analytical techniques, WCBS and transect data are now combined to produce even more accurate butterfly indicators than hitherto available.

Like the transect method, WCBS relies almost entirely on volunteer effort, and in Cumbria we'd welcome additional surveyors in 2018. Increased volunteer effort in the county in recent years has meant that we're now achieving higher coverage - our sincere thanks to all who have helped! Most 2017 volunteers have agreed to survey their squares again in 2018 and some new ones have joined, but we are still left with the unallocated 1 km squares listed below - would you be prepared to survey one or more of these squares? We can supply maps for each of these, and some already have a survey route plotted on them. The minimum requirement is just two visits to your allotted square, one in each of July and August, and with a minimum of ten days between the two visits. (Optional extra visits in May and June are especially valuable though not essential.) The survey is conducted by walking at a slow, steady pace, identifying and counting all butterflies seen within 2.5m either side of the survey line, up to 5m ahead and 5m from ground level up (effectively a 5x5x5 "moving box"). As with the normal transect method certain minimum weather standards must be met on survey days. The results can be submitted online to BC or on paper forms if the internet is not available. If you'd like to help with this survey, or just learn more about it, do please get in touch. More detailed information on the WCBS can be found on the UKBMS website.

Martin Chadwick - WCBS Coordinator, Cumbria Branch. Tel: 015395 32553. Email:

WCBS random squares available for survey in 2018

NY1011: Lank Rigg NY1612: W of Pillar, Ennerdale
NY4634:Kelkbarrow, Hutton-in-the-Forest NY6622: Crackkenthorpe
NY7323: Murton Pike (upland square) NY3106: Swinescar Pike
NY3211: Dunmail Raise NY4830: Newton Rigg
NY6944: Brownside Moss

Morecambe Bay Anania funebris Search (April to June)

This beautiful fast-flying little Pyralid moth, with a wing length of only c 10 mm, is a nationally scarce (Nb) UK BAP priority species of conservation concern. A search in 2013 led by Graham Jones targeting the species in the Morecambe Bay limestones resulted in 23 positive records from nine sites. But nil returns were received from 20 sites, nine of which had previous positive records. The moth may still be in decline, but has probably been much overlooked in the past. Though the above project has now been completed, Butterfly Conservation's Cumbria and Lancashire branches ask that you keep an eye open for this species in the Morecambe Bay area, and ensure than any sightings are recorded. Records of the adult moth in the area range from the first week in May to the first week in July, but with the majority of records from late May to late June. (In 2015 the earliest record was from Latterbarrow on 14 May and the latest 23 June at Gait Barrows.)

Despite encouraging results in 2013, knowledge of the distribution and abundance of Anania funebris remains somewhat patchy, particularly in areas away from the Arnside and Silverdale AONB. A more robust dataset is needed to help determine the current status of funebris within the Morecambe Bay area. Results obtained from this survey could be used as a baseline to assess if current woodland management work, aimed primarily at threated fritillary butterflies, is also benefiting species such as funebris. The results will help to determine the direction of any future conservation work aimed at funebris.

Anania funebris is a colourful, day-flying moth that will fly prominently in sunny weather. So please don't be put off in getting involved by thinking that you may not have the necessary expertise. This is most definitely a project that anyone who has an interest in watching butterflies and day-flying moths can make a very positive contribution towards! Illustrated below are the adult moth, and its caterpillar's food plant Goldenrod (Solidago virgaurea), both images courtesy of David Benham.

survey_2015_image_a survey_2015_image_b

In 2017 we'd particularly like the following nine sites to continue to be targeted - all these were searched unsuccessfully in 2013 and some since, yet had seen positive records from earlier years, so are all worth checking out. However, all records from any site are welcomed. Please remember to record any positive sightings of Anania funebris, whether in the Morecambe Bay area or elsewhere on the "Sightings" page of Butterfly Conservation's Cumbria or Lancashire branch websites, as appropriate.

Nine sites / 1 km squares with negative results for 2013 survey, but with previous positive records:

SD4577: Arnside Knott SD4387: Howe Ridding
SD4573: Jack Scout and Heald Brow SD47S: Myers Allotment
SD47Z: Slack Head, Beetham SD4383: Thornbarrow Hill
SD4875: Trowbarrow Quarry SD4488: Whitbarrow SSSI *
SD4976: Yealand Hall Allotment

*: Grid reference SD4588 had positive record in 2015 for Whitbarrow SSSI.

Mountain Ringlet Survey 2017 (June and July)

One element of the RSPB Haweswater Mountain Ringlet Project, piloted in 2015, is investigating a sample of "extinct" Mountain Ringlet sites across the Lake District - these are sites where positive records were received up to 2000, but none have been seen since. In this context "extinction" could mean that the butterfly really has since disappeared from the site, or that no searches have been undertaken since, or simply that searches may have omitted parts of the site where the butterfly is still present. RSPB surveyors will be checking these sites for Mountain Ringlet's presence / absence in 2017, but this task is in addition to conducting habitat surveys on these sites and they may not always have opportunity for thorough searches across the whole site. In 2017 it is hoped to sample up to ten sites in this way.

This presents an opportunity for volunteer surveyors to assist in the project by undertaking a search of suitable areas in one or more of the ten squares listed below - this need not be done in the company of RSPB personnel and can be done at a time of the volunteer's own convenience. RSPB's suggested method of searching extinct squares is to walk up to five 1 km transects at 200m intervals across the squares, and see whether any MRs are found, spending more time in habitat that looks especially suitable for MRs. The ten 1km squares allocated for 2017 are:

NY2007: Lingmell NY2211: Base Brown
NY2306: Bow Fell NY2318: Maiden Moor
NY2608: Langdale Combe NY2806: Langdale (Raven Crag)
NY2908: Blea Rigg NY3807: Snarker Pike
NY4117: Place Fell (Low Moss) NY4118: Place Fell (High Dodd)

Where to look With very few exceptions, Lakeland's Mountain Ringlets are found between 500m and 750m altitude and usually where the underlying rocks are of the Borrowdale Volcanics group (this includes all of the above sites). Search on gently or moderately sloping grassy sites where Mat grass is abundant. mr_survey_2016_a

What to look for - recognising the species Look for a small dark brown butterfly flying close to the ground; they tend to fly in sunshine and drop into the grass at the first hint of cloud cover, so are easily overlooked. On closer inspection, a butterfly sitting with its wings closed is about 15mm across, has a black furry body and brown / orange tinged wings - see photo left. A butterfly sitting with its wings open is about 30mm across, the dark brown wings having a row of orange blotches around the edges of both the fore and hind wings and the body is black and furry - see photo right. mr_survey_2016_b

The only other butterfly species you're likely to encounter in any numbers at these altitudes is the Small Heath - It is slightly smaller than a Mountain Ringlet and is a light orange colour when flying. When resting it always closes its wings and shows a two-tone grey hindwing, where the orange forewing is also sometimes visible - see photo below left. mr_survey_2016_c

When to look Search for Mountain Ringlets anytime between early June and late July, but the peak time is late June / early July. You're only likely to see them on warm days with sunshine or at least some sunny periods and without too much wind.

Documentation If you're able to help with this please download and complete a copy of the 2017 Mountain Ringlet Record Form. There's space on the form for up to three squares, but surveying just a single square or part-square thoroughly would be very much appreciated - even this could take two or three hours or so plus of course time getting to and from the site. Please return (email, with scanned or photographed document) to me at:

Please get in touch with me on the above email address if you'd like any further information before visiting any of these sites - in some cases we may be able to provide grid references of the most recent of the pre-2000 records.

Thank you very much for your and interest and possible help in this project. Any findings from this could prove invaluable to the RSPB in their project and will be of great interest to BC's Cumbria Branch too.

Martin Tordoff
Butterfly Conservation, Cumbria Branch.

Netted Carpet Moth - Larval Count (September 2019)

The Netted Carpet moth (Eustroma reticulatum) is confined in the UK to the Lake District and two sites in the extreme north of Lancashire (with just a possibility of residual colonies in mid-Wales). Its larvae feed only on Touch-me-not-Balsam (Impatiens noli-tangere), itself a nationally scarce plant. Thus conservation of this moth also involves conservation of its food plant, and the National Trust works with landowners to manage sites for the plant and the moth. There are several scattered and small Netted Carpet colonies in or near the Lake District, concentrated in the main areas of: Coniston; east and west Windermere; east and west Derwent Water; Muncaster; Warton / Yealand. More information can be found on: Butterfly Conservation's species fact sheet.

Surveys of the larvae and food plant are conducted annually in late summer. Volunteers from Butterfly Conservation's Cumbria and Lancashire branches and other organisations have assisted the National Trust in this annual survey – both previous and new volunteer surveyors would be welcomed on the following dates:

Monday 2 September 2019: Derwent Water sites.
Tuesday 3 September 2019: Coniston Water sites.
Wednesday 4 September 2019: Windermere sites.
Thursday 5 September 2019: Warton, Lancs sites.

If you're able to help, for detailed information on venues and start times, please contact John Hooson, Wildlife Advisor, National Trust (North Region), Grasmere LA22 9QZ, tel: 015394 63818. Email: